The Four
Digestive Enzyme
Flow Charts

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4charts.GIF (9511 bytes)

The Task:

    You will be creating four flow charts that trace the origin, trasnport (if any) and usage of digestive enzymes for all four types of Organic Molecules (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids).  This will count as a TEST grade, and it will be worth 20 points (i.e., 5 points for EACH flow chart).

The Four Charts:

    Remember, there needs to be a separate flow chart, four in all, for each of the organic molecules.

The Chart Layout:

NOTE: You are NOT to simply print up this diagram and write the information into it!  All of the organs below are not equally used in the digestion of each of the four organic molecules.  Each text box will need to expand to incorporate the amount of text involved.  For example, the mouth contains enzymes for only two of the four organic molecules, and the box for the mouth will thus be larger for each of those two charts and smaller for the other two.

    In this way, the size of the boxes will also illustrate the functional importance of that organ in the digestion of that type of molecule!  The mechanical and chemical digestion boxes will also vary in size according to the amount of processes or enzymes involved.  In this way, the size of the boxes will illustrate the comparative difficulty in digesting one type of organic molecule over another!

    DO NOT print up four copies of the diagram below, as it will cause you to miss the point of the entire assignment!  You are welcome to diagram the flow charts on the computer, but be sure to keep the font size for the enzyme content in each organ constant, for to shrink the font size to keep the box size constant will miss the point  simplest method is to hand draw it.  All in all, I think it is much easier to simply draw it by hand!

NOTE: This diagram on the Left ONLY illustrates the overall division into the three columns labeled below, and it is NOT meant to be the full format for the flow charts. Remember that ALL of the Organs, ALL of the Ducts, and ALL of the Sphincters need to be in EVERY flow chart!  Lastly, Don't forget the following: (1) the salivary duct, and (2) the diaphragm.

generic_chart.GIF (12421 bytes)

NOTE: It is Very Important that you Look at Each of these
Three
diagrams!

How the PRIMARY organs should
connect in your flow charts.


CLICK to ENLARGE the Image.
NOTE: In your flow charts, don't forget to include where
the Enzymes are PRODUCED, RECEIVES, and USED
 
The ACTUAL Location of
the Digestive Ducts.

CLICK to ENLARGE the Image.
NOTE: In your flow charts, you can put the Pancreas on either side
of the Small Intestine (see below), but do omit the Spleen.

You can put the Pancreas on either side of the Small Intestine, thus making TWO ways to draw in the ducts.


CLICK to ENLARGE the Image.
NOTE:
The Choice on the RIGHT is more anatomically correct,
but I will accept either.
 
All Three of these diagrams are CRUCIAL to understanding this Assignment!
 
The Format of the Labeling: Which Chart Should I Do First? What are the Polymers and the Monomers?
format.GIF (8648 bytes)

carbs.GIF (2277 bytes)

NOTE: Each flow chart needs ALL of the Following,

  • EVERY Organ

  • EVERY Duct

  • EVERY Sphincter

 

 

monomers&polymers.GIF (13983 bytes)
CLICK to ENLARGE the Image.
NOTE: The molecules listed in the image above are NOT meant to be the complete list necessary for this assignment.  They are, however, a useful starting point.

What Enzymes Do I Use?

Refer to the previous homework.

 

Tips:

COLOR CODING -  The assignment does not need to use color, but if you do, please do the following:

1. Please keep all digestive organs (Primary and Accessory) the same Color!  This will avoid confusion when you do the FINAL MANDALA.
2. Keep all Enzymes the same color.  If you want to, you can use a different color on each flow chart for the
      enzyme types (i.e., Carbohydrate enzymes one color, Lipid enzymes another color, etc.).
3. You can keep all of the Polymers one color, and all the monomers another color.  Be careful here, as some
      enzymes do not produce monomers
(e.g., Salivary Amylase turns Starch into Maltose + Dextrin).
4.
Be sure to provide a key as to the color scheme, as that will make the chart far easier to read.

OTHER ISSUES, based on a student questions -

        1. What goes into the mechanical and chemical digestion boxes, and where are the arrows supposed to point to?
 
The Mechanical Digestion box should include the following terms for all four flow charts: cutting, tearing, grinding, churning.  The first three all occur in the mouth (include one arrow to the mouth), and the last occurs in the stomach (include one arrow to the stomach).  There is one extra form of mechanical digestion in the Lipids flow chart, as one of the chemicals used is not an enzyme.  This chemical is used in a third organ, so a third arrow needs to go to that organ.  If you don't know which organ, you can look to the ducts for a clue.

The Chemical Digestion box should include a list of enzymes used for that type of organic molecule (e.g., Carbohydrates).  Each enzyme should be followed by a colon, then, on a new line, show the chemical reaction involving the reactants and the products.  The resulting format would look like this:
 
Cholesterol Esterase:
Cholesterol esters ---> Cholesterol + Fatty Acid

Please note that the second line above takes the format of a chemical reaction, with the reactants before the arrow (in this case Triglycerides), and the products after the arrow (in this case Monoglycerides + 2 Fatty Acids).
 

        2. What do you mean by enzyme reactants and products?
 
Every enzyme assists in performing a chemical reaction (thus making chemical digestion).  In every chemical reaction there are molecules that go into the reaction (the reactants, which will appear before the arrow), and there are molecules that are produced in the reaction (the products, which will appear after the arrow).  Each of the reactions are examples of Catabolism (which is half of the body's Metabolism -- the other half is Anabolism).  These reactions involve breaking larger molecules (polymers) down into smaller ones.  As such, every one of the reactions will have a polymer in the reactants.

Each of the four types of organic molecules have both polymers and monomers.  The chemical reactions will follow three basic types:
 
Polymers -- > Monomers
Maltase:
Maltose --> 2 Glucose

Large Polymers -- > Smaller Polymers
       Trypsin:
              Polypeptide --> Shorter peptides

Polymers -- > Smaller Polymer + Monomers
       
Lingual Lipase:
             
Triglycerides ---> Monoglycerides + 2 Fatty Acids

Despite the variation in each of the reactions above, it is important to note that each reaction started with polymers in the reactants.  Given that some reactions only produce smaller polymers, digestion of some molecules must be a multi-step process.  Make sure to include the appropriate number of the products, as in the Maltase example above.

How does it all start?

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